Chapter 13 - The Field and the Knower of the Field
Said Arjuna, O Kesava, I wish to know about Purusha
(the pure consciousness) and Prakriti (the creative energy), kshetram (filed
or matter or the body) and kshetragna (awareness or consciousness),
knowledge and purpose of knowledge.
Said Lord Supreme, This body, O Arjuna, is called
kshetra (matter or the body). He who knows thus is called kshetragna ( the
knower of kshetra ) by the knowledgeable.
O Bharata, I am kshetragna (pure consciousness) in
all the kshetras (all material objects). The knowledge of what is the body
and who is knower of the body , in My opinion is true knowledge.
Now understand from Me briefly what matter is, what
are its variations, from where it is, who the knower (consciousness) is and
what are his powers.
(This knowledge) is described in (the from of )
songs variously by the seers and in many vedic hymns and also in the verses
of Brahmasutras with in-depth analysis.
The Mahabhutas (the five great elements), the
ego, the discriminating intelligence, the invisible (self), the ten senses
(ears, skin, tongue, nose, hands, feet, mouth, anus, and the sexual organs)
and the five objects of the senses ( sound, taste, touch, smell and the
Desire, repulsion, happiness, sorrow, the
aggregate, dynamic awareness, decisiveness, all these are briefly the
various aspects of the kshetra (body)
Without pride, without pomposity, absence of
cruelty, tolerance, straight forwardness, service to Acharya (the spiritual
master), cleanliness, stability (of the mind), self-control.
Vairagya (absence of any feeling) towards the
objects of the senses, absence of egoism, constant reflection of the pain
and drawbacks inherent in the birth, death, old age and disease.
Disinterested, detached from the son, wife, home
and the like, always even minded in both desirable and undesirable
Devoted to Me only without engaging in other yogas
(activities) and evil pursuits, living in solitary places, disinterested in
seeking the company of people.
Always absorbed in self knowledge, engaged in the
study of philosophy and spirituality ; all this is declared as knowledge and
the rest is ignorance.
That which is to be known I will now declare to you
by knowing which immortality is attained. The eternal Supreme Brahman is
neither sat nor asat it is said.
Everywhere hands and feet It has, Everywhere eyes,
heads and faces, everywhere in the world ears. Everything It envelops
Source of all the senses and qualities, but devoid
of any senses, detached but bearing all, without qualities but partaker of
Outside and inside of all beings, moving and non
moving, and also very subtle and incomprehensible, far away but also very
Undivided but situated in the beings divided,
bearer of beings but also to be known as the devourer and illuminator.
Among the illuminated the very illumination ,
beyond the darkness It is said to be. Knowledge, to be known and the end of
all knowledge, It is in the hearts of all.
Thus the body (the matter) and also the knowledge
and the knowable all explained briefly. My devotee who knows all this by
that understanding attains My State.
Prakriti (the Creative energy) and Purusha (the
pure consciousness) know that they had certainly no beginning . All
distortions and qualities know for certain arise out of Prakriti only.
For the purpose of performing actions only is said
to be Prakriti. Purusha is for pleasure and pain to enjoy only it is also
Purusha alone seated in Prakriti enjoys the
qualities produced by Prakriti. Because of association with the gunas
(qualities), the division of reality and unreality take birth.
The Overseer, Regulator, Bearer, Enjoyer, the Great
Lord, the Supreme Soul indeed is said to be. In the body (he is) Purusha,
Any one who knows thus Purusha and also Prakriti
with the Gunas (qualities) , in spite of his present ways, shall never born
By dhyana (meditation) atma (soul) is experienced.
Some the Super soul by the lower self. Others through Yoga of Knowledge. The
rest through the Yoga of Action.
Others without knowing (these methods), hearing
from others worship (Me). They also transcend death through constant
Whatever that takes birth even minutely, pure,
moving and non-moving, is due to the union of the Kshetra (matter) and
Kshetragna (consciousness). Know it thus, O Best of Bharatas.
The Lord of the Universe is established equally in
all living beings, as the indestructible in the destructible. He who sees
thus does really see.
Seeing Him equally everywhere, the Lord situated
equally in all, he does not degrade his Self by his self and he will reach
the transcendental state.
He who sees Prakriti alone performing all the
actions and the Self as the Non-doer does actually see.
When he sees the multitude of diverse beings united
in One and spread there from, he attains Brahman.
Because He is eternal, without qualities, this
transcendental and inexhaustible soul, while dwelling in the body, neither
does any thing nor gets entangled, O Son of Kunti.
As the omnipresent sky, because of its subtle
nature, does not get entangled, the Soul also is not entangled in the body
though present every where.
Just as the sun illuminates the whole wide world,
the Soul illuminates the whole body, O Bharata.
The difference between Kshetra (matter) and
Kshetragna (consciousness), whoever perceives with his eyes of wisdom and
also the liberation of the being from the hands of Prakriti, know that they
go the Supreme only.
Thus ends the thirteenth chapter named The Yoga of the Field and
the Knower of the Field in the Upanishad of the divine Bhagavad-Gita , the knowledge of
the Absolute, the yogic scripture, and the debate between Arjuna and Lord